Should You Use a Lens Hood?

Short answer: Lens hoods shade the front of your lens reducing unwanted lens flare.

Lens Flare

sun shining above Belém Tower, Lisbon
Lens flare caused by taking a picture looking at the sun

Lens flare is caused by bright light hitting your lens. This creates artefacts in the image, such as the ring of speckled light in the above image, and glare across an image. Glare creates a washed out look with low-contrast.

Resource: Wikipedia

lens flare example

In the above image the lens flare in the centre of the image mirrors the shape of the aperture.

What Does a Lens Hood Do?

The main purpose of a lens hood is to shade the front of your lens to reduce the chance of unwanted lens flare. For example, on a sunny day if you take a photo towards the direct of the sun but not at the sun, then the bright light still hit the front of your lens and cause lens flare. If you are using a lens hood, however, then lens flare should be prevented in this situation.

The same is true if you were taking a photo at night in the direct of a spotlight but not directly at the spotlight. A lens hood would also help you out there.

Protecting The Lens

Lens hoods also physically protect your camera lens by creating a barrier between the front the lens and the rest of the world. If you bump your camera against a wall or put it down heavily, the lens hood is going to stop the front element of the lens making direct contact with a hard surface. For this reason, most photographers will leave their lens hoods on all of the time.

Why Do Lens Hoods Come in Different Shapes and Sizes?

The lens hood is designed for the particular lens you use it with. When you bought your lens it may have come with the hood, or when you look to purchase one you will noticed that the hood is made for a particular lens or range of lenses.

The petal shape lens hood is used on wide angle lenses and zoom lenses. Essentially, sections have been taken out of a straight tube so that the lens hood does not get in a wide angle shoot. This won’t be as effective as a closed tubular lens hood, but the priority is to shade the lens without getting the hood in the shot.

A long prime lens and telephoto lenses are more likely to have a tube shape lens because this is more effective at providing shade. As long as the focal length is long enough then the hood won’t get into the shot so the petal shape is not required.

Video Coverage

Check out this comprehensive video from SteeleTraining on YouTube:

Photography What's That?

What Are F-Stops?

Short answer: F-stop is a setting on your camera lens that directly relates to aperture and the amount of light coming through the lens. A low f-stop, e.g. f/1.4, lets in more light than a higher f-stop, e.g. f/16.

What is Aperture?

First lets quickly cover aperture, the aperture of your camera lens is the diameter of the opening letting light in to your camera. For example, 40mm.

When you adjust the f-stop on your lens you are adjusting the size of the aperture and adjusting the amount of light reaching the sensor. The lower the f-stop the wider the aperture. This is why a low f-stop is more effective in low light and a higher f-stop will prevent your photos from being overexposed on sunny days.

Focal Length Matters Too

F-stops also take the focal length of the lens into account as well.

Broadly speaking, the f-stop is focal length divided by aperture.

F-Stop = Focal Length / Aperture

So a 100mm lens with an aperture of 50mm is on the f/2 setting. And a 50mm with an aperture of 25mm is also on the f/2 setting. In this way both lenses are letting light onto the image sensor at the same luminesce.

Resource: Wikipedia

This is why a zoom lens, one with a variable focal length, can also have a variable lowest f-stop. For instance, the kit lens for the Sony A6000 has a focal length of 16-50mm and an f-stop range of f3.5-5.6. This is because the aperture cannot open wide enough to provide an f-stop of f3.5 at a focal length of 50mm, this would require an aperture of around 14mm. However at a focal length of 16mm only a 4-5mm aperture is required for the 3.5 f-stop.

So What Are F-Stops?

F-stops are a measure of the amount of light being let on to the image sensor or film. It takes into account both aperture and focal length so that the f-stop is constant across different lenses. A lower number means more light is being let in through a larger aperture and a higher f-stop means less light is being let in through a smaller aperture.

F-Stop Range

The f-number on your camera can be set at discrete intervals from the following scale:

f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22, f/32

The difference between each f-stop is one stop. A stop is a unit used to measure light exposure. One stop difference is either half or double the amount of light coming in, depending on whether you are stopping down or stopping up.

F-stops are also available between the numbers in the range above and these are fractions of a stop.

Resource: Wikipedia

Stopping Up and Stopping Down

Going from f/2.8 to f/4 is stopping down, you are halving the amount of light coming in to the camera. Going from f/11 to f/8 is stopping up, you are doubling the amount of light being let in.

Effect on Depth Of Field

The most important points about using f-stops on your camera are to keep in mind that the lower the number the more light being let in. And that a lower number produces a shallower depth of field. This is how you create background blur and the bokeh effect.

f4.5 sample photo
f/4.5 1/160 sec. 26 mm ISO 100
f20 sample photo
f/20 1/8 sec. 26 mm ISO 100

A shallow depth of field is a great way to create a photo with a professional feel, by blurring the background in a portrait you remove distraction and the same is true of photographing an object.

Then, of course, if you wish to keep as much as possible in focus, then use a higher f-stop.

What’s Right for My Photo?

This is all about experimenting and getting a feel for the results you can produce. Switch your camera to aperture priority mode, you will be able to control the f-stop and see the impact of depth of field and all other settings will be set automatically.

Buying Lenses

The minimum f-stop available on a lens is a key feature to look out for when considering a purchase or understanding the lenses you already have. If you want to create background blur or want to take photos in low light you want to get a low f-stop number. More affordable lenses with low f-stops are typically prime lenses where the focal length is not adjustable. So this is going to be a trade off in flexibility of focal length against other priorities.

Check out the kind of photos that are possible in low light with lots of background blur with an f/1.4 from North Borders:

In Depth Video on F-Stops

Here’s a great video from Dylan Bennett on YouTube. He goes into detail and covers why the numbers in the f-stop scale are so specific:

Photography What's That?

What is Dynamic Range in Photography?

Short answer: Dynamic range in photography is the difference between the lightest parts of an image and the darkest parts. In photography, this is usually measured in f-stops.

The Subjects Dynamic Range, Your Cameras, and Your Eye’s

In photography there are three ways in which dynamic range is usually covered. The main one is your camera’s dynamic range. A good camera should be capable of capturing 12-15 f-stops of data within a single image. Resource: How-To Geek

The human eye has a static dynamic range of about 6.5 f-stops which adjusts to match the scene within a luminance range of about 46.5 f-stops. Resource: Wikipedia. However, this is hotly debated online with many different numbers being used and is enough for it’s own post. See some of the debate on Digital Photography Review.

Then there’s the dynamic range in the scene you are capturing. If the dynamic range in the scene is greater than the dynamic range of your camera, light and dark shades will become crushed into one which is called clipping.


Sony Alpha 6000 Sample Photo 11
Example of a blown out sky

Clipping happens when there are subtle differences in light and dark shades that are being lost because they are outside of the dynamic range the camera is capable of capturing all at once. In the above photo the sky is a uniform white when there were subtle details in the clouds on the day. Everything that is near to white is being counted as white and the detail is not present in the image. This is clipping and in the above example this creates a blown out sky which is a common effect of clipping.

How your camera will typically set it’s range is by picking out the middle grey of the scene and then allowing the dynamic range to extend equally from that point. So if your scene has more range than your camera is capable of you will get dark greys coming out as blacks and near-whites as whites as well.

You can get a good sense of this by looking at your camera’s histogram.


maxim medvedev
Live histogram on Canon DSLR by Maxim Medvedev on Unsplash

Your camera’s histogram shows you the distribution of light in a captured image and live in your scene. If the values in the graph are all on the right then this means the scene is bright and is an indication that you might be missing information in the highlights. If your camera gives you a live histogram of your scene then you can adjust your exposure, for example by using a faster shutter speed, and see if there are details you were missing.

Likewise, if all your values are to the left then this shows this is a dark scene you are capturing. Here’s a good video from Matt Granger on YouTube who discusses some of the finer points of using histograms:

Shooting in RAW

To increase the dynamic range available in your images then you should shoot in RAW. A RAW image is an unprocessed image and so contains more information. You will have access to greater shadow and highlight details when editing a RAW image than an image format like a JPEG.

What is HDR?

HDR stands for High Dynamic Range. This is a technique where multiple images are taken of a scene at different exposures and then combined to create an overall image which displays a greater dynamic range than your camera is capable of taking in one shot.

high dynamic range mike cassidy
High dynamic range images of a poppy field by Mike Cassidy on Unsplash

In the above image you can see that there are details in the clouds which are subtle shades of grey and the grass is bright, almost luminescent, as well. If you were to take this as one image you might find that having details in the clouds means sacrificing brightness in the grass and poppies. Or if you focus on having the grass bright then the sky will be blown out.

Video Introduction

A great video from Tony & Chelsea Northup on YouTube:


Does Facebook Messenger Compress Images?

Short answer: Yes absolutely. Solution: use a file sharing service like Dropbox or Google Drive instead if quality matters for what you’re aiming to do.

Sony A6000 Sample Image 109
Original Image, 6000x3376px, 4.6MB
Facebook downloaded image 1
Facebook Messenger Compressed Image, 3641x2048px, 572.8KB

Facebook Messenger absolutely does compress the images that you upload. This is simply to save bandwidth when you come back to view the image on the platform and to save on storage space. As you can see above, by compressing the original image over 4MB has been saved in terms of the image size.

The resulting image at 3641x2048px is plenty big enough for most uses, especially if you are viewing the image on a mobile. However, if the image quality matters then you should use a file sharing service instead of Facebook Messenger to share images. For example, if you are sharing images to go on a website then it’s best to share the files through something like Dropbox or Google Drive instead of sharing using a messaging platform.

Photography What's That?

What is Bokeh?

Short answer: Bokeh is the aesthetic quality of the unfocused part of an image. Another term for this is lens blur.

nighttime bokeh by jj ying
Night time city bokeh shot by JJ Ying on Unsplash and Instagram

What does bokeh mean?

Bokeh is used to reference the out of focus part of an image and the aesthetic quality of that part of the image. With this in mind, you might not like the bokeh in a photo and called it bad bokeh. Or, as will more often be the case, you’ll mention bokeh because you like the quality produced.

Resource: Wikipedia

Bokeh is most commonly mentioned when circles of light are present in the image. These are commonly called bokeh circles or bokeh balls. Bokeh circles will most often be present in night time shots, as in the photo above, but can also be present in day time shots:

daytime bokeh by aaron burden
Day time bokeh shot by Aaron Burden, find him on Unsplash

What are bokeh circles?

When a point of light is out of focus this is rendered as a larger ball of light by your camera lens. This is what we mostly think about when we think of bokeh. If you type bokeh into Google, this is present in most of the images you see.

How does aperture affect bokeh?

A large aperture, f/2 for example, will create more background blur, a more obvious bokeh and larger bokeh circles. As you narrow your aperture, by increasing your f-stop, the out of focus portion of your image starts to become clearer, the bokeh will be less noticeable and with smaller bokeh circles.

There is no right way of course, it’s all about your preference and the look you wish to achieve. Typically though when a photographer wants background blur, for instance in a portrait, and very noticeable bokeh they will use a fast lens, for example on that can shoot at f/1.4, and will have the aperture wide open.

Where does the term bokeh come from?

Bokeh is derived from a few Japanese words that are used to describe related concepts like blur, mental haze and playing dumb, in nuanced ways. Find out more in Wikipedia’s Origin section.

The English spelling “bokeh” was popularised in a 1997 issue of Photo Techniques. In an article called What Is ‘Bokeh’? by John Kennerdell.

Resource: The Online Photographer

How do you pronounce bokeh?

The most common pronunciations I’ve heard are bo (like bow) and ka, boka. Or bokay, like bouquet. Or bokeh, with the Ke sound from a word like Kenneth.

To add to the confusion to the issue here’s a video from Photogearnews to show how many pronunciations people will use:

If it helps, I say boka but that’s just easier for me to say.

How to take a bokeh effect photo

Taking a photo with bokeh is as simple as taking a photo that’s completely out of focus, or has an out of focus part.

To create noticeable bokeh use a low f-stop on your lens so that the depth-of-field is shallow. Then ensure there is distance between your subject and the background, experiment with this to get the effect you want.

How to create different bokeh ball shapes

The shape of the bokeh circle is defined by the shape of the opening on the lens. This is why bokeh circles can have edges, the edges come from the aperture blades. The smaller your aperture, the greater the effect of the blades on the shape of the bokeh circle. This is because the blades are more closed in. There are lenses specifically designed to create rounder bokeh with more circular aperture blades.

In the below image you can see the bokeh circles have edges caused by the aperture blades:

aperture blades bokeh markus spiske
Image by Markus Spiske, on Unsplash and

You can dramatically change the shape of the bokeh circle by placing a piece of card with a shape cut out in front of your lens. This is how you can create bokeh circles in heart shapes, stars, or anything you like. Check out this tutorial from Christopher Frost on YouTube for a demonstration of this:

What creates textures in bokeh balls?

This can be dust and particles on your lens, so if you want a smooth effect then make sure your lens and sensor are as clean as possible. But this can also be a quality of the lens itself, which you won’t be able to get rid of. This is another reason why some lenses are designed specifically for bokeh effect, e.g. the smooth effect and round bokeh circles that most people would consider desirable.

How do you get swirly bokeh?

This is created by the lens, typically a vintage or lomography lens. For example, the below image was taken with a vintage lens, Helios 44M-2 58mm, to get the swirly effect. This lens in particular is popular for this effect.

swirly bokeh markus spiske
Image by Markus Spiske, on Unsplash and

In-Depth Bokeh Video

A great video from Tony & Chelsea Northup on YouTube:

Photography What's That?

What is the Golden Hour?

Short answer: Golden hour in photography is the time briefly after sunrise or before sunset when the sun is low in the sky and the light is orange/red.

Silhouette of Worthing Pier against orange yellow sun during golden hour
Worthing Pier during the golden hour just before sunset.

What Causes Golden Hour

When the sun is low in the sky it has to travel through more of the earth’s atmosphere in order to reach you, rather than beaming straight down as it does during the day. As the white light travels through the atmosphere the colours with shorter wavelengths, like blue and green are scattered leaving behind the red and orange end of the spectrum. This is why the light we see is orange/red.

Resource: Wikipedia.

Is It Exactly An Hour?

No, the term is used purely to indicate a short amount of time close to sunrise or sunset. People just use the golden hour as a way to refer to a time when the light is more orange than typical daylight and a good time for taking photos.

Take Advantage of It

The golden hour is absolutely something you should keep in mind if you like the aesthetic. In general, shadows are not as harsh and highlights will not be as bright. In general your images should have less dynamic range than a clear day and will have a warm feel.

Golden Hour Sample Galley

Check out some photos I’ve taken during golden hour. As always, these photos are free to use with an image credit.

Short Video Introduction

Here’s a short 2 minute introduction to the topic from Dean Rojas on YouTube:

Longer Video on Golden Hour

Check out this video from Channel 8 on YouTube for a more in depth dive into the topic, including what causes the golden hour and shooting tips:


Blue Peter Garden MediaCityUK

birch trees in Blue Peter garden in Media City Salford

Pictures of Blue Peter Garden at Media City, Salford.

  • Camera: Sony A6000
  • Lens: Sony E PZ 16-50mm F3.5-5.6 OSS
  • License: All our photos are licensed under Creative Commons, CC BY 4.0.
    This means they can be used for free for any purpose with an image credit.
MediaCityUK sign through trees
Petra bronze bust in Blue Peter Garden

Flowers Trees

Cherry Blossom Tree

Cherry blossom pink

Pictures of pink and white cherry blossom trees.

  • Camera: Sony A6000
  • Lens: Sony E PZ 16-50mm F3.5-5.6 OSS
  • License: All our photos are licensed under Creative Commons, CC BY 4.0.
    This means they can be used for free for any purpose with an image credit.
Pink cherry blossom on tree 1
White cherry blossom tree in front of white building



Daffodils in the sun

Pictures of daffodils in the sun.

  • Camera: Sony A6000
  • Lens: Sony E PZ 16-50mm F3.5-5.6 OSS
  • License: All our photos are licensed under Creative Commons, CC BY 4.0.
    This means they can be used for free for any purpose with an image credit.
White and yellow daffodils
Daffodils in Blue Peter Garden Salford

Architecture Salford

Anaconda Cut

Looking up at Anaconda Cut

Pictures of Anaconda Cut in Greengate, Salford.

  • Camera: Sony A6000
  • Lens: Sony E PZ 16-50mm F3.5-5.6 OSS
  • License: All our photos are licensed under Creative Commons, CC BY 4.0.
    This means they can be used for free for any purpose with an image credit.
Greengate Square and Anaconda Cut in Salford
Anaconda Cut in Salford